Ruaha national park is one of the few Tanzania’s  famous wilderness area where one can have a rare experience of game viewing  spiced up by the fascinating landscape. The park is rich of plants and animals  such as Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus   strepsiceros) which can not be found in any other national park. The  park boasts of her almost untouched and unexplored ecosystem, making visitors’  safari experience very unique.

The Great   Ruaha River  as other rivers like Mwagusi, Jongomero and Mzombe save as the life line of the  park. During dry season, these rivers become mostly the main source of water  for wildlife. There are few natural springs saving the same purpose.

In the pick of dry season, elephants obtain water from dry  sand rivers using their front feet and trunks. The remaining water falls along the  Great Ruaha River  are also important habitat for hippopotamus, fish and crocodiles.

Ruaha National Park has a bimodal pattern of rain forest;  the short rainfall season begins November to February, while the long season is  between March and April. The annual mean rainfall ranges between 500mm-800mm  with the average annual temperature of about 280c. The park  experiences its dry season between June and October when the temperature at  Msembe headquarter reaches 350c.

Ruaha National Park has a high diversity of plants and  animals including elephants, buffalos, antelopes and some of rare and  endangered species like wild dogs. The park serves as water shade both for  wildlife and human being. This makes it to be economically significant as it  supports agricultural activities down stream and contributes to hydro- electric  power (HEP) for the country at Mtera and Kidatu dams.


The park is one of the Tanzania  birds’ paradise with more than 571species and some of them are known to be  migrants from within and outside Africa.  Migrating species from Europe, Asia, Australian rim and Madagascar have been recorded in  the park. Species of interest in the park include Ruaha red-billed hornbill  (Tokus ruahae) which is dominant in the area. The recently annexed wetland, the  Usangu basin is one of the country’s important bird area (IBA) as recognized by  Birdlife International. Though birds can be seen all the year around, the best  time for bird watching is during the wet season.


Ruaha is believed to have high concentration of elephants  than any national park in East Africa. It is  also a place where, magnificent mammals like Kudu (both Greater and Lesser), Sable  and Roan antelopes can easily be spotted in Miombo woodland. The male Kudu have  beautiful spiraled horns while male Sable antelope have impressive curved  horns. The park is also a habitat for endangered wild dogs. Other animals in the park include lions, leopards, cheetah, giraffes, zebras, elands, impala, bat eared foxes and Jackals. 

Reptiles and Amphibians

Apart from large animals, the park also harbors a number of reptiles and amphibians such as crocodiles, poisonous and non-poisonous snakes,  monitor lizards, agama lizards and frogs. The Great Ruaha and Mzombe rivers are presumably the most preferred habitat for crocodiles.


The park is characterized by semi-arid type of vegetation, baobab trees, Acacia and other species. There are over 1650 plant species that have been identified. The park is the transitional point of two vegetation zones, the Zambezian (characterized by Miombo vegetation) and Sudanian  (characterized by Acacia vegetation).

Historical and cultural sites

There are several historical and cultural sites in the park which offer a visitor a chance to explore the Southern Tanzanian tribes. The early trade routes used by the Arab caravan crossed here. In 1830 these coastal traders expanded their routes northward, and in year 1857 to 1858 other European explorers such as Burton and Speke used these routes too. Chief Mkwawa used the same routes to visit his chiefdoms in Sangu and Gogo.

The park area often hailed as the land of the brave Chief Mkwawa, the Chief of the hehe people who resisted against the German attack in the late 19th century. The fierce and successful battle tactics against the German invasion made the Hehe tribe famous in the Southern highland of the then Tanganyika (Tanzania).  The Hehe tribe under the leadership of chief Mkwawa was dominant around the Ruaha area. Some of the outcrops in the area are known as hiding places of chief Mkwawa who went into hiding after the fall of his empire (kalenga) to the German in 1894.       In brief, it is believed that, this ancient land (Ruaha National    Park) holds many secrets of chief Mkwawa.

Some of the cultural sites that were used for rituals are “Ganga la Mafunyo”, Nyanywa and Chahe, Painting rock at  Nyanywa, the “Gogo”  chief “Mapenza”  grave at Mpululu and “Mkwawa” spring area believed to be used by Chief Mkwawa.  Other historical sites near the park include Isimila pillars near Iringa town,  Kalenga, Mlambalasi, Lugalo and God’s bridge just to mention a few.

Physical feature

  • Rivers

The river systems and watershed are of economical, social and  ecological significance for the park itself and country at large. Main rivers  include the Great Ruaha, Mzombe, Mdonya, Mwagusi and Jongomero.

  • Rift valley

The Great Rift Valley crosses the park. The escarpment wall along the western valley side is about  50-100m high in the north-eastern parts, increasing in height to the southwest.  It is considered that, the valley of the Great Ruaha River is an extension of the Great Rift Valley. The Great Ruaha   River flows for 160km long along the entire eastern boundary through rugged gorges and open plains.

  • Natural springs

They occur throughout the park and they are associated with the base of the Western Rift Valley escarpment, most notably Mkwawa, Mwayembe,  Makinde and Majimoto springs. These are dry season refugees for wildlife and  when most of the rivers get dry.

  • Undulating landscape

The park has undulating land and hills including  kilimamatonge, Nyamasombe, Nyanywa, Chariwindwi, Igawira, Mwayiui, Kibiriti,  Magangwe, Ndetamburwa and Isukanvyiola. These act as kopjes creating good  habitat for animals such as klipspringer which normally can be seen in some of  these hills.

Best time to see the wildlife

Best time to see predators and large mammals is during the dry season (mid May-December).

The wet season (January –April) is best for bird watching, lush scenery and wildflowers. The male Greater kudu is most visible in June which is their breeding season.

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